The ubiquity and consequences of childhood growth stunting (<-2 SD in height-for-age Z score, HAZ) in rural areas of low-income nations has galvanized research into the reversibility of stunting, but the shortage of panel data has hindered progress. Using panel data from a native Amazonian society of foragers-farmers in Bolivia (Tsimane'), we estimate rates of catch-up growth for stunted children. One hundred forty-six girls and 158 boys 2 < or = age < or = 7 were measured annually during 2002-2006. Annual Delta height in cm and in HAZ were regressed separately against baseline stunting and control variables related to attributes of the child, mother, household, and village. Children stunted at baseline had catch-up growth rates 0.11 SD/year higher than their nonstunted age and sex peers, with a higher rate among children farther from towns. The rate of catch up did not differ by the child's sex. A 10% rise in household income and an additional younger sibling lowered by 0.16 SD/year and 0.53 SD/year the rate of growth. Results were weaker when measuring Delta height in cm rather than in HAZ. Possible reasons for catch-up growth include (a) omitted variable bias, (b) parental reallocation of resources to redress growth faltering, particularly if parents perceive the benefits of redressing growth faltering for child school achievement, and (c) developmental plasticity during this period when growth rates are most rapid and linear growth trajectories have not yet canalized.
Article Archive: Age Factors
AIM: The study analysed variability in physical stature, weight, and body mass index (BMI) in the USA during 1971-2002.
SUBJECTS: Subjects were non-Hispanic Blacks and Whites, 2-74 years of age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES I-III and 1999-2002).
METHODS: The coefficient of variation and the standard deviation of the logarithm of stature, weight, and BMI were used to assess anthropometric variability for groups defined by age, race, sex, income, and survey year. Weighted ordinary least squares regressions were used to estimate the effect of socio-economic variables on anthropometric variability.
RESULTS: (a) The relation between age and variability in weight or BMI resembles an inverted U, (b) men have lower variability in BMI than women, (c) Blacks and the poor have greater variability in weight and BMI than Whites or than the non-poor, and (d) variability in anthropometric indices increased during 1971-2002. Results were robust to the measure of variability used and to the use of the mean and mean square of the anthropometric indicators as explanatory variables.
CONCLUSION: Since anthropometric indices correlate reliably with canonical indicators of well-being (e.g. income), growing variability in anthropometric indices, particularly among the Blacks and the poor, signals growing inequality in quality of life--a worrisome trend.
Human indigenous circumpolar populations have elevated basal metabolic rates (BMRs) relative to predicted values; this metabolic elevation has been postulated to be a physiological adaptation to chronic and severe cold stress. The present study examines BMR in the Yakut, an indigenous high-latitude population from the Sakha Republic of Russia to determine (1) whether the Yakut show evidence of an elevated BMR, (2) if the Yakut display evidence of age-related changes in BMR, and (3) whether lifestyle differences influence BMR. BMR was measured during the late summer in 75 women and 50 men (ages 18-56 years) from the Siberian village of Berdygestiakh. Measured BMR (+/- SEM) of the entire sample was significantly elevated (+6.5%) compared to predictions based on body mass (6,623.7 +/- 94.9 vs. 6,218.2 +/- 84.7 kJ/day; P < 0.001). Additionally, measured BMR for the entire sample was significantly higher than predictions based on fat-free mass (+20.8%) and surface area (+8.9%). Males and females both showed significant elevations relative to all three standards. The elevated BMR of the Yakut does not appear to be attributable to extreme levels of protein, since the Yakut consume a mixed diet with a substantial proportion of carbohydrates. No significant age-related changes in BMR were found when controlled for body composition. No significant relationship was found between lifestyle variables and BMR, suggesting the possibility of a genetic or developmental mechanism. This study provides additional evidence of metabolic elevation in indigenous circumpolar groups and has important implications for estimating the nutritional requirements of these populations.
Leptin is thought to signal energy stores, thus helping the body balance energy intake and expenditure. However, the strong relationship between leptin and adiposity in populations with adequate nutrition or common obesity is not universal across ecologic contexts, and leptin often correlates only weakly, or not at all, with adiposity in populations of lean or marginally-nourished males. To clarify whether the relationship between adiposity and leptin changes during development, this study examines leptin and body fat among children and adolescents of lowland Bolivia. Anthropometric measures of body composition and dried blood spot samples were collected from 487 Tsimane' ranging from 2 to 15 years of age. Leptin was assayed using an enzyme immunoassay protocol validated for use with blood spot samples. In this population, leptin concentrations were among the lowest reported in a human population (mean +/- SD: 1.26 +/- 0.5 and 0.57 +/- 0.3 in females and males). In addition, the relationship between leptin and adiposity follows distinct developmental trajectories in males and females. In males, leptin is weakly correlated with most measures of body composition at all ages investigated. However, in females, the level of body fat and the strength of the correlation between body fat and leptin (a measure of its strength as a signal of energy stores) both increase markedly with age. These findings suggest a more important role of leptin as a signal of energy stores among females as they approach reproductive maturity, while raising questions about the function of this hormone in lean males.
BACKGROUND: Global climate change and recent studies on early-life origins of well-being suggest that climate events early in life might affect health later in life.
AIM: The study tested hypotheses about the association between the level and variability of rain and temperature early in life on the height of children and adolescents in a foraging-farming society of native Amazonians in Bolivia (Tsimane'). SUBJECT AND METhods: Measurements were taken for 525 children aged 2-12 and 218 adolescents aged 13-23 in 13 villages in 2005. Log of standing height was regressed on mean annual level and mean intra-annual monthly coefficient of variation (CV) of rain and mean annual level of temperature during gestation, birth year, and ages 2-4. Controls include age, quinquennium and season of birth, parent's attributes, and dummy variables for surveyors and villages.
RESULTS: Climate variables were only related with the height of boys age 2-12. The level and CV of rain during birth year and the CV of rain and level of temperature during ages 2-4 were associated with taller stature. There were no secular changes in temperature (1973-2005) or rain (1943-2005).
CONCLUSION: The height of young females and males is well protected from climate events, but protection works less well for boys ages 2-12.
Hypertension is an important global health issue and is currently increasing at a rapid pace in most industrializing nations. Although a number of risk factors have been linked with the development of hypertension, including obesity, high dietary sodium, and chronic psychosocial stress, these factors cannot fully explain the variation in blood pressure and hypertension rates that occurs within and between populations. The present study uses data collected on adults from three indigenous Siberian populations (Evenki, Buryat, and Yakut [Sakha]) to test the hypothesis of Luke et al. (Hypertension 43 (2004) 555-560) that basal metabolic rate (BMR) and blood pressure are positively associated independent of body size. When adjusted for body size and composition, as well as potentially confounding variables such as age, smoking status, ethnicity, and degree of urbanization, BMR was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP; P < 0.01) and pulse pressure (PP; P < 0.01); BMR showed a trend with diastolic blood pressure (DBP; P = 0.08). Thus, higher BMR is associated with higher SBP and PP; this is opposite the well-documented inverse relationship between physical activity and blood pressure. If the influence of BMR on blood pressure is confirmed, the systematically elevated BMRs of indigenous Siberians may help explain the relatively high blood pressures and hypertension rates documented among native Siberians in the post-Soviet period. These findings underscore the importance of considering the influence of biological adaptation to regional environmental conditions in structuring health changes associated with economic development and lifestyle change.